RLS Bacterial Imbalance

Concepts about Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth (SIBO)

SIBO and RLS

Dr. Weinstock’s viewpoint

 

References

RLS Articles

Banerji NK, Hurwitz LJ. (1970). Restless legs syndrome, with particular reference to its occurrence after gastric surgery. British Medical Journal, 4(5738), 774-775.

Basu PP, Shah NJ, Krishnaswamy N, Pacana T. (2011). Prevalence of restless legs syndrome in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. World Journal of Gastroenterology, 17, 4404-4407.

Baumagard DC, Carding SR. (2007). Inflammatory bowel disease: cause and immunobiology. Lancet, 12, 369(9573), 1627-1624.

Biancone L, Vernia P, Agostini D, Ferrieri A, Pallone F. (2000). Effect of rifaximin on intestinal bacterial overgrowth in Crohn's disease as assessed by the H2-Glucose Breath Test. Current Medical Research and Opinion, 16, 14-20.

Cikrikcioglu MA, Halac G, Hursitoglu M, Erkal H, Cakirca M, Kinas BE, Erek A, Yetmis M, Gundogan E, Tukek T. (2010). Prevalence of gluten sensitive enteropathy antibodies in restless legs syndrome. Acta Neurologica Belgica, 111, 282-286.

Cocito D, Maule S, Paolasso I, Castelli L, Ciaramitaro P, Poglio F, Ottobrelli A, Grimaldi S. (2010). High prevalence of neuropathies in patients with end-stage liver disease. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, 122, 36-40.

de Groot S. (2007). Restless legs due to ingestion of 'light' beverages containing saccharine. Results of an N-of-1 trial. Nederlands tijdschrift voor tandheelkunde, 114, 263-266.

Fornari MC, Pedreira S, Niveloni S, González D, Diez RA, Vázquez H, Mazure R, Sugai E, Smecuol E, Boerr L, Mauriño E, Bai JC. (1998). Pre- and post-treatment serum levels of cytokines IL-1beta, IL-6, and IL-1 receptor antagonist in celiac disease. Are they related to the associated osteopenia? American Journal of Gastroenterology, 93, 413-418.

Franco RA, Ashwathnarayan R, Deshpandee A, Knox J, Daniel J, Eastwood D, Franco J, Saeian K. (2008). The high prevalence of restless legs syndrome symptoms in liver disease in an academic-based hepatology practice. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, 4, 45-49.

Gann H, Feige B, Fasihi S, van Calker D, Voderholzer U, Riemann D. (2002). Periodic limb movements during sleep in alcohol dependent patients. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 252, 124-129.

Ganz T. (2003). Hepcidin, a key regulator of iron metabolism and mediator of anemia of inflammation. Blood, 102, 783-788.

Gemignani F, Marbini A, Di Giovanni G, Salih S, Margarito FP, Pavesi G, Terzano MG. (1997). Cryoglobulinaemic neuropathy manifesting with restless legs syndrome. Journal of the Neurological Sciences, 152, 218-223.

Green PH, Alaedini A, Sander HW, Brannagan TH 3rd, Latov N, Chin RL. (2005). Mechanisms underlying celiac disease and its neurologic manifestations. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, 62, 791-799.

Hou JK, El-Serag H, Thirumurthi S. (2009). Distribution and manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease in Asians, Hispanics, and African Americans: a systematic review. American Journal of Gastroenterology, 104, 2100-2109.

Hughes PA, Zola H, Penttila IA, Blackshaw LA, Andrews JM, Krumbiegel D. (2013). Immune activation in irritable bowel syndrome: can neuroimmune interactions explain symptoms?  American Journal of Gastroenterology, 108, 1066-1074.

Jackson JR, Eaton WW, Cascella NG, Fasano A, Kelly DL. (2012). Neurologic and psychiatric manifestations of celiac disease and gluten sensitivity. Psychiatric Quarterly, 83, 91-102.

Koike H, Misu K, Hattori N, Ito S, Ichimura M, Ito H, Hirayama M, Nagamatsu M, Sasaki I, Sobue G. (2001). Postgastrectomy polyneuropathy with thiamine deficiency. Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 71, 357-362.

Lin HC. (2004). Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth: a framework for understanding irritable bowel syndrome. Journal of the American Medical Association, 292, 852-858.

Lutz EG. (1978). Restless legs, anxiety and caffeinism. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 39, 693-698.

Mahida YR, Kurlac L, Gallagher A, Hawkey CJ. (1991). High circulating concentrations of interleukin-6 in active Crohn's disease but not ulcerative colitis. Gut, 32, 1531-1534.

Manchanda S, Davies CR, Picchietti D. (2009). Celiac disease as a possible cause for low serum ferritin in patients with restless legs syndrome. Sleep Medicine, 10, 763-765.

Matsuzaki T, Ichikawa T, Kondo H, Taura N, Miyaaki H, Isomoto H, Takeshima F, Nakao K. (2012). Prevalence of restless legs syndrome in Japanese patients with chronic liver disease. Hepatology Research, 42, 1221-1226.

Moccia M, Pellecchia MT, Erro R, Zingone F, Marelli S, Barone DG, Ciacci C, Strambi LF, Barone P. (2010). Restless legs syndrome is a common feature of adult celiac disease. Movement Disorders, 25, 877-881.

Nemeth E, Rivera S, Gabayan V, Keller C, Taudorf S, Pedersen BK, Ganz T. (2004). IL-6 mediates hypoferremia of inflammation by inducing the synthesis of the iron regulatory hormone hepcidin. Journal of Clinical Investigations, 113, 1271-1276.

Paik CN, Choi MG, Lim CH, Park JM, Chung WC, Lee KM, Jun KH, Song KY, Jeon HM, Chin HM, Park CH, Chung IS. (2011). The role of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in postgastrectomy patients. Neurogastroenterology and Motility, 23, e191-196.

Reilly NR, Fasano A, Green PH. (2012). Presentation of celiac disease. Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America, 22, 613-621.

Rubio-Tapia A, Barton SH, Rosenblatt JE, Murray JA. (2009). Prevalence of small intestine bacterial overgrowth diagnosed by quantitative culture of intestinal aspirate in celiac disease. Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology, 43, 157-161.

Rutgeerts P, Ghoos Y, Vantrappen G, Eyssen H. (1981). Ileal dysfunction and bacterial overgrowth in patients with Crohn's disease. European Journal of Clinical Investestigation, 11, 199-206.

Sartor RB, Muehlbauer M. (2007). Microbial host interactions in IBD: implications for pathogenesis and therapy. Current Gastroenterology Reports, 9, 497-507.

Schnabl B. (2013). Linking intestinal homeostasis and liver disease. Current Opinions in Gastroenterology, 29, 264-270.

Sun ER, Chen CA, Ho G, Earley CJ, Allen RP. (1998). Iron and the restless legs syndrome. Sleep, 21, 371-377.

Vargas-Ruiz AG, Hernandez-Rivera G, Herrera MF. (2008). Prevalence of iron, folate, and vitamin B12 deficiency anemia after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Obesity Surgery, 18, 288-293.

Vinson DC, Manning BK, Galliher JM, Dickinson LM, Pace WD, Turner BJ. (2010). Alcohol and sleep problems in primary care patients: a report from the AAFP National Research Network. Annals of Family Medicine, 8, 484-492.

Weinstock LB, Fern SE, Duntley SP. (2008). Restless legs syndrome in patients with irritable bowel syndrome: response to small intestinal bacterial overgrowth therapy. Digestive Diseases and Sciences, 53, 1252-1256.

Weinstock LB, Walters A, Duntley S, Zeiss S, Lewis N. (2009). Antibiotic therapy improves restless legs syndrome: a double blind, controlled study of short course of rifaximin. Sleep Medicine, 10, S28.

Weinstock LB, Walters AS, Mullin GE, Duntley SP. (2010-A). Celiac disease is associated with restless legs syndrome. Digestive Diseases and Sciences, 55, 1667-1673.

Weinstock LB, Bosworth BP, Scherl EJ, Li E, Iroku U, Munsell MA, Mullen GE, Walters AS. (2010-B). Crohn's disease is associated with restless legs syndrome. Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, 16, 275-279.

Weinstock LB. (2010-C). Antibiotic therapy may improve idiopathic restless legs syndrome: prospective, open-label pilot study of rifaximin, a nonsystemic antibiotic. Sleep Medicine, 11, 427.

Weinstock, LB. (2011-A). Principles of Integrative Gastroenterology. (1st ed.), Weil Integrative Medical Library, Oxford University Press, (Chapter 11).

Weinstock LB, Walters AS. (2011-B). Restless legs syndrome is associated with irritable bowel syndrome and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Sleep Medicine, 12, 610-613.

Weinstock LB, Walters AS, Paueksakon P. (2012). Restless legs syndrome--theoretical roles of inflammatory and immune mechanisms. Sleep Medicine Review, 16, 341-354.

 

Articles about small intestinal bacterial overgrowth

Daković Z, Vesić S, Vuković J, et al.Ocular rosacea and treatment of symptomatic Helicobacter pylori infection: a case series. Acta Dermatovenerol Alp Panonica Adriat 2007;16:83-6.

Szlachcic A. The link between Helicobacter pylori infection and rosacea. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol  2002;16:328-33

Darfeuille-Michaud A. Adherent-invasive Escherichia coli: a putative new E. coli pathotype associated with Crohn's disease. Int J Med Micro 2002;292:185-93.

Swindsinski A, Ladhoff A, Pernthaler A, et al. Mucosal flora in inflammatory bowel disease. Gastroenterology 2002;122:44-54.

Sobel J, Griffin PM, Slutsker L, et al. Investigation of multistate foodborne disease outbreaks. Public Health Rep 2002;117:8-19.

Currie A, MacDonald J, Ellis A, et al. Outbreak of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 infections associated with consumption of beef donair. J Food Prot 2007;70:1483-8.

Dechet AM, Scallan E, Gensheimer K, et al.Outbreak of multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium. Definitive Type 104 infection linked to commercial ground beef, northeastern United States, 2003-2004.Clin Infect Dis 2006;42:747-52.

Garg AX, Suri RS, Barrowman N, et al. Long-term renal prognosis of diarrhea-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome: a systematic review, meta-analysis, and meta-regression.JAMA 2003;290:1360-70.

Oakes RS, Kirkhamm JK, Nelson RD, Siegler RL. Duration of oliguria and anuria as predictors of chronic renal-related sequelae in post-diarrheal hemolytic uremic syndrome. Pediatr Nephrol 2008;23:1303-8.

Suri RS, Clark WF, Barrowman N, et al. Diabetes during diarrhea-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabetes Care 2005;28:2556-62.

Zilbauer M, Dorrell N, Wren BW, Bajaj-Elliott M. Campylobacter jejuni-mediated disease pathogenesis: an update. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2008;102:123-9.

Donna Jackson Nakazawa’s book “The Autoimmune Epidemic”, Touchstone Press, NY, 2008- Dr. Mullen to get you the page numbers.

DeMeo MT, Mutlu EA, Keshavarzian A, Tobin MC. Intestinal permeation and gastrointestinal disease. J Clin Gastroenterol 2002;34:385-96.

Spiller RC, Jenkins D, Thornley JP, et al. Increased rectal mucosal enteroendocrine cells, T lymphocytes, and increased gut permeability following acute Campylobacter enteritis and in post-dysenteric irritable bowel syndrome. Gut 2000;47:804–11.

Dunlop SP, Hebden J, Campbell E, et al. Abnormal intestinal permeability in subgroups of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndromes. Am J Gastroenterol 2006;101:1288–94.

Dinan TG, Quigley EMM, Ahmed SMM, et al. Hypothalamic-pituitary-gut axis dysregulation in IBS: plasma cytokines as a potential biomarker? Gastroenterology 2006;130:304-11.

Bocholt SF, Harbor MS, Blackburn-Munro G, et al. Involvement and role of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) stress axis in animal models of chronic pain and inflammation. Stress 2004;7:1-14.

Blackburn-Munro G. Hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis dysfunction as a contributory factor to chronic pain and depression. Curr Pain Headache Rep 2004;8:116-24.

Dinan TG, Quigley EMM, Ahmed SMM, et al. Hypothalamic-pituitary-gut axis dysregulation in IBS: plasma cytokines as a potential biomarker? Gastroenterology 2006;130:304-11.

Sicherer SH, Sampson HA. Peanut allergy: emerging concepts and approaches for an apparent epidemic. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2007;120:491-503.

Ventura MT, Polimeno L, Amoruso AC, et al. Intestinal permeability in patients with adverse reactions to food. Dig Liver Dis 2006;38:732-6.

Bach JF. Infections and autoimmune diseases. J Autoimmune 2005;25:74-80.

Koshini R, Dai SC, Lescano SC, Pimentel M. A systematic review of diagnostic testing for small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Dig Dis Sci 2008;53:1443-54.

Bratten JR, Jones MP. Small intestinal motility. Curr Opin Gastroenterol 2007 23:127-33.

Lewis MJV, Reilly B, Houghton LA, et al. Ambulatory abdominal wall plethysmography: Towards objective assessment of abdominal distension in IBS. Gut 2001;48:216-20.

Parlesak A, Klein B, Schecher K, et al. Prevalence of small bowel bacterial overgrowth and its association with nutrition intake and nonhospitalized older adults. J Am GeriatrSoc 2003; 51:768-73.

Lipski PS, Kelly PJ, Malhotra R. Mountford R. Small bowel bacterial overgrowth in subjects living in residential care homes. Age Aging 1992;21:5-12.

Pimentel M, Chow EJ, Lin HC. Eradication of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth reduces symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome. Am J Gastroenterol 2000;95:3505-6.

Pimentel M, Wallace D, Hallegua D, et al. A link between irritable bowel syndrome and fibromyalgia may be related to findings on lactulose breath testing. Ann Rheum Dis 2004;63:450-452.

Pimentel M, Chow EJ, Lin HC. Normalization of lactulose breath testing correlates with symptom improvement in irritable bowel syndrome. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Am J Gastroenterol 2003;98:412-419.

Pimentel M, Park S, Mirocha J, Kane SV, Kong Y. The effects of a nonabsorbed oral antibiotic (rifaximin) on the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome. Ann Intern Med. 2006;145:557-563.

Majewski M, McCallum RW. Results of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth testing in irritable bowel syndrome patients: clinical profiles and effects of antibiotic trial.Adv Med Sci 2007;52:139-42.

Lupascu A, Gabtielli M, Lauritano EC, et al. Hydrogen glucose breath test to detect SIBO: a prevalence case-control study in IBS. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2005;22:1157-60.

Nucera G, Gabrielli M, Lupascu A, et al. Abnormal breath tests to lactose, fructose and sorbitol in irritable bowel syndrome may be explained by small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2005;21:1391-5.

Walters B, Vanner SJ. Detection of bacterial overgrowth in IBS using the lactulose H2 breath test: comparison with 14C-D-xylose and healthy controls.Am J Gastroenterol 2005;100:1566-70.

Nucera G, Gabrielli M, Lupascu A, et al. Abnormal breath tests to lactose, fructose and sorbitol in irritable bowel syndrome may be explained by small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2005;21:1391-5.

Weinstock LB, Tordorczuk JT, Fern SE, et al. Comprehensive SIBO therapy of IBS patients. Am J Gastroenterol 2006;110:A1123.

Lin HC. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth: a framework for understanding irritable bowel syndrome. JAMA 2004;292:852-8.

Spiller RC, Jenkins D, Thornley JP, et al. Increased rectal mucosal enteroendocrine cells, T lymphocytes, and increased gut permeability following acute Campylobacter enteritis and in post-dysenteric irritable bowel syndrome. Gut 2000;47:804–11.

Dunlop SP, Hebden J, Campbell E, et al. Abnormal intestinal permeability in subgroups of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndromes. Am J Gastroenterol 2006;101:1288–94.

Weston AP, Biddle WL, Bhatia PS, et al. Terminal ileal mucosal mast cells in irritable bowel syndrome. Dig Dis Sci 1993;38:1590-5.

Barbara GM, Stanghellini, De Giorgio R, et al. Activated mast cells in proximity to colonic nerves correlate with abdominal pain in irritable bowel syndrome. Gastroenterology 2004;126:693-702.

Tornblom H, Lindberg G, Nyberg B, Veress B. Full-thickness biopsy of the jejunum reveals inflammation and enteric neuropathy in irritable bowel syndrome. Gastroenterology 2002;123:1972-9.

Barbara GM, Stanghellini, De Giorgio R, et al. Activated mast cells in proximity to colonic nerves correlate with abdominal pain in irritable bowel syndrome. Gastroenterology 2004;126:693-702.

Lin HC. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth: a framework for understanding irritable bowel syndrome. JAMA 2004;292:852-8.

Dinan TG, Quigley EMM, Ahmed SMM, et al. Hypothalamic-pituitary-gut axis dysregulation in IBS: plasma cytokines as a potential biomarker? Gastroenterology 2006;130:304-11.

King TS, Elia M, Hunter JO. Abnormal colonic fermentation in IBS. Lancet 1998;352:1187-9.

Koshini R, Sun-Chuan D, Lezcano S, Pimentel M. A systematic review of testing for small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Am J Gastroenterol 2007;102:Abstract 235.

Pimentel M, Mayer AG, Park S, et al. Methane production during lactulose breath test is associated with gastrointestinal disease presentation.  Dig Dis Sci 2003;48:86-92.

Chatterjee S, Park S, Low K, et al. The degree of breath methane production in IBS correlates to the severity of constipation. Am J Gastroenterol 2007;102:837-81.

Pimentel M, Lin HC, Enayati P, et al. Methane, a gas produced by enteric bacteria slows intestinal transit and augments small intestinal contractility. Am J Physiol 2006;290:G1089-95.

Weinstock LB, Tordorczuk JT, Fern SE, et al. Comprehensive SIBO therapy of IBS patients. Am J Gastroenterol 2006;110:A1123.

Su C, Aberra F, Lichtenstein G. Utility of the nonabsorbed (<0.4%) antibiotic rifaximin in gastroenterology and hepatology. Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006;2:186-197.

Lauritano EC, Gabrielli M, Lupascu A, et al. Rifaximin dose-finding study for the treatment of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2005;22:31-35.

Pimentel M, Park S, Mirocha J, Kane SV, Kong Y. The effects of a nonabsorbed oral antibiotic (rifaximin) on the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome. Ann Intern Med. 2006;145:557-563.

Parodi A, Paolino S, Greco A, et al. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in rosacea: clinical effectiveness of its eradication. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2008;6:759-64.

Di Stefano M, Malservisi S, Veneto G, Ferrieri A, Corazza GR. Rifaximin versus chlortetracycline in the short-term treatment of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2000;14:551-556.

Nucera G, Gabrielli M, Lupascu A, et al. Abnormal breath tests to lactose, fructose and sorbitol in irritable bowel syndrome may be explained by small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2005;21:1391-5.

Lauritano EC, Gabrielli M, Lupascu A, et al. Rifaximin dose-finding study for the treatment of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2005;22:31-35.

Pimentel M, Chow EJ, Lin HC. Normalization of lactulose breath testing correlates with symptom improvement in irritable bowel syndrome. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Am J Gastroenterol 2003;98:412-419.

Pimentel M, Park S, Mirocha J, Kane SV, Kong Y. The effects of a nonabsorbed oral antibiotic (rifaximin) on the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome. Ann Intern Med. 2006;145:557-563.

Sharara AI, Aoun E, Abdul-Baki H, Mounzer R, Sidani S, Elhajj I. A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of rifaximin in patients with abdominal bloating and flatulence. Am J Gastroenterol. 2006;101:326-333.

Weinstock LB, Tordorczuk JT, Fern SE, et al. Comprehensive SIBO therapy of IBS patients. Am J Gastroenterol 2006;110:A1123.

Yang J, Lee HR, Low K, et al. Rifaximin versus other antibiotics in the primary treatment and retreatment of bacterial overgrowth in IBS.Dig Dis Sci 2008;51:169-74.

Spiller RC, Jenkins D, Thornley JP, et al. Increased rectal mucosal enteroendocrine cells, T lymphocytes, and increased gut permeability following acute Campylobacter enteritis and in post-dysenteric irritable bowel syndrome. Gut 2000;47:804–11.

Yang J, Lee HR, Low K, et al. Rifaximin versus other antibiotics in the primary treatment and retreatment of bacterial overgrowth in IBS.Dig Dis Sci 2008;51:169-74.

Weinstock LB, Tordorczuk JT, Fern SE, et al. Comprehensive SIBO therapy of IBS patients. Am J Gastroenterol 2006;110:A1123.

Spiller R. Probiotics: an ideal anti-inflammatory treatment for IBS? [Editorial] Gastroenterology 2005;128:783-5.

Resta-Lenert S, Barrett KE. Probiotics and commensals reverse TNF-alpha- and IFN-gamma-induced dysfunction in human intestinal epithelial cells.Gastroenterology 2006;130:731-46.

Ait-Belgnaoui A, Han W, Lamine F, et al. Lactobacillus farciminis treatment suppresses stress induced visceral hypersensitivity: a possible action through interaction with epithelial cell cytoskeleton contraction. Gut 2006;55:1090-4.

Spiller RC, Jenkins D, Thornley JP, et al. Increased rectal mucosal enteroendocrine cells, T lymphocytes, and increased gut permeability following acute Campylobacter enteritis and in post-dysenteric irritable bowel syndrome. Gut 2000;47:804–11.

Dunlap SP, Hebden J, Campbell E. Abnormal intestinal permeability in subgroups of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndromes. Am J Gastroenterol 2006;101:1288-94.
Plaza MA. 5-hydroxytryptamine and the gastrointestinal migrating motor complex. Curr Opin Investig Drugs 2001;2:539–44.

Spiller RC, Jenkins D, Thornley JP, et al. Increased rectal mucosal enteroendocrine cells, T lymphocytes, and increased gut permeability following acute Campylobacter enteritis and in post-dysenteric irritable bowel syndrome. Gut 2000;47:804–11.

Sturniolo GC, Fries W, Mazzon E, et al. Effect of zinc supplementation on intestinal permeability in experimental colitis. J Lab Clin Med 139:311-5.

Mahmood A, FitzGerald AJ, Marchbank T, et al. Zinc carnosine, a health food supplement that stabilizes small bowel integrity and stimulates gut repair processes. Gut 2007;56:168-75.